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Nature

Travel agency in Georgia "Migioni"

Georgian geographic location has conditioned the diversity of its nature. Georgia is situated in the northern periphery of the subtropical zone, in the folded alpine belt between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. Georgia is distinguished with difficult relief, 2/3 part of the territory is mountainous. The relief of Georgia represents the integrity of high, average and low mountains, uplands and plains. The following main units are distinctly expressed: the Caucasus, the intermountain plain, which is divided into Colchis and Iberia plains by the Likhi Range, the Meskheti and Trialeti Ranges and the Southern Georgia Highland. Some peaks of the main dividing ridge of the Caucasus within Georgia are higher than 5000 m, are covered with eternal snow and glacier. The highest mountain in Georgia is Mount Shkhara at 5,068 meters. The main foothill of the Caucasus Range is divided by river gorges into independent side ranges. In the intermountain lowlands are plains: Colchis, Shida and Kvemo Kartli, Alazani, Iori upland and Imereti plateau. Except the Main Caucasus Range there are located the Likhi, Kvernaki, Saguramo-Ialno, Bombori, Meskheti and Trialeti Ranges. The Likhi Range connects the Caucasus Range with the Meskheti Range. It plays a decisive role in the formation of the contrasting landscapes of Eastern and Western Georgia. The Meskheti and Trialeti Ranges are mostly of average height.

The climate of Georgia is extremely diverse. Almost all climatic zones of the earth exist on the relevantly small territory of Georgia, starting with humid subtropical ending with eternal snow and glacier zone. Western Georgian has a humid climate. Eastern Georgia has a dry and humid-temperate climate. Southern Georgia’s climate is continental.

Georgian vegetable cover is rich and diverse. This is explained by the diversity of the physical-geographic and climatic conditions of the Georgian territory. This relevantly small territory is characterized by diverse vegetable formations – starting with the foothills semidesert of dry regions of Eastern Georgia and the dense woods of humid subtropical climate of the same belt of Colchis ending with the peculiar vegetation of severe climate of high mountains. The diverse spectrum of vegetable cover is represented by subtropical Colchis wood in the alder Colchis peat swamps, broad-leaved and needle-leaved forests in plains and on the sides of mountains, alms, eternal snow and glacier at the Caucasus Range, forest-steppe and steppe in Eastern Georgia and mountain steppe in Southern Georgia Highland. The relief partition and difficult configuration of the ranges have conditioned the isolation of ecosystems. This explains the high level of local endemism. Approximately 5000 species of wilding metasperm / gymnosperm and 8300 spore-bearing plants grow in Georgia. Among which are: ca 75 species of pteridophyte, 600 species of moss, 600 species of homobium, 5000 species of fungi, 2000 species of hydrophyte.

Georgian fauna is also diverse. It is mostly represented by subdomain elements of the Mediterranean Sea, in the northern part we meet the representatives of Europe- Siberia subdomain and in the south-eastern part we meet the species of Central Asia fauna. Georgia is home to about 100 species of mammal, more than 330 species of birds, 48 species of reptiles, 11 species of amphibians and about 160 species of fishes. Among mammals should be mentioned: Caucasian goat and East Caucasian tur, saiga, chamois, gazelle, Caucasian deer, roedeer, wild pig, brown bear, wolf, snow leopard, lynx, jackal, fox, striped hyena, beaver, etc. Among birds are: Caucasian black grouse, Caucasian and Caspian snowcock, grey partridge, black francolin, partridge, quail, pheasant, stork, heron, swan, seagull, wild duck, goose, golden eagle, Griffon vulture, Peregrine Falcon, Black vulture, owl, hawk, kite, etc.

More than 100 names of diverse natural territorial complexes – landscapes have been formed on the territory of Georgia, starting with semidesert and humid subtropical and ending with eternal snow covered and glacier landscapes.