Travel agency in Georgia "Migioni"

Evidence for the earliest occupation of the territory of present day Georgia goes back to c. 1.8 million years ago, as evident from the excavations of Dmanisi in 1991 revealing the remains and skulls of a woman and man. These humans were the ancient habitants of the European Continent. The group of humans arriving in Dmanisi from Africa further resettled in Asia and Europe. Ancient human footprints in Georgia were discovered in the Сheulean epoch of the Later Stone Age (600-400 thousand years BC). Georgia was intensively settled in the Acheulean epoch (400-100 thousand years BC). Up to 50 ancient settlements of this culture have been revealed on the Georgian territory. Flint tools of the Mustie epoch (100-35 thousand years BC) have been revealed in the caves of western Georgia. In the pre-tribal epoch humans lived in groups. Fishing, hunting and gathering were the main activities. The Paleolithic culture in Georgia is close to the Front Asian culture. The long glacial epoch was finished by the Upper Paleolithic Age and modern climatic conditions were formed. From the Mesolithic Age monuments of this period in Georgia should be mentioned: Edzani, Tchakhati, Kudaro, Shavi Mghvime, Kvatchara, Iashtkhva, etc. The Mesolithic culture laid down the foundations to the Neolithic Age. The Neolithic period is of utmost importance in the history of humanity. Farming and cattle-raising were the new forms of agriculture.

Georgia is a primary seat of wheat in the world. Its forms, species and sorts have no analogy in the world. Archeological excavations have revealed that hard and soft species of wheat were spread in western Georgia in the Aeneolithic Age (the 6th-4th millennium BC). According to Mckay specification 40% of wheat species are endemic for Georgia. Western Georgia is holding a significant place, where almost all major endemic species of wheat of the world have been found. The monuments of the Later Neolithic Age and Copper-Stone Age of the Aeneolithic period are well known in Georgia (the 6th-4th millennium BC). The ancient settlements have been discovered in Kartli, the middle part of the Mtkvari River and the adjacent territory. The tribal village was not very large and constituted of round buildings built from raw brick. The Mtkvari-Aras culture progressed in the Early Bronze Age (the 2nd half of the 4th millennium BC) in southern Georgia. Metallurgy was distinguished in the Mtkvari-Aras culture. Fighting and working tools and decoration were made of metal. The remains of the metallurgy industry have been revealed in the settlements of this period, such as stoves, forms, crucibles, etc. Local arsenic copper was used for making metal items. Arable farming was flourishing. Tillage was also applied. Metal sickle was used together with stone sickle. Crops were kept in clay vessels. The Mtkvari-Aras culture was spread from southern Caucasus to eastern Anatolia, northern Iran, eastern Mediterranean, Syria and Palestine. The Mtkvari-Aras culture existed in Georgia for 1000 years and was replaced by Bedeni culture. Small golden figure of a lion was found in Tsnori tumulus from numerous discoveries. It belongs to the 23rd -22nd centuries BC and speaks about high level of jeweller's art. Trialeti culture was developed in Georgia in the 2nd half of the 3rd millennium of the Middle Bronze Age. This culture is characterized by big tumuli. Tumulus is a grave mound, constructed by tribal chiefs. Gold and silver cups, sculptures, jewelry, and fighting tools were found in such tombs in Georgia. The necklace, made in the 19th century BC and consisting of 14 beads is to be mentioned. The beads are decorated with soldered small golden balls. The pendent is also decorated with small golden balls and a cornelian. Trialeti necklace is one of the most ancient items in the world, made under this technique. Geomagnetic and cosmic researches, performed in 2000 year, revealed astonishing pictures: air-photography and computer researches have established that a significant part of Iori upland was occupied by a grandiose town. The fencing of ancient settlement was easily observed on one wide crest of Iori upland. The foundation of chapel was found in the northern part of the crest, from where the ancient settlement was beginning. The chapel dates to the end of the 2nd millennium BC. Storage places and residential spaces were also excavated. Two big states Diaokhi and Colchis were established in the northern-western region of historic Georgia in the 13th century BC. Ancient data about the Georgians are preserved in the ancient eastern sources. The Georgian ancestors had relations with such strong states as Assyria, Hittites Kingdom and Urartu. Near Vani town was revealed the town, established in the 8th century. Archeological excavations revealed churches, chapels, defense walls, gates, workshops, vessels, jewelry, sculptures, etc. In the 8th century BC, in the Kingdom of Colchis near Aia city (at present Kutaisi) was built an arena, where sports competitions and other entertainments were arranged. The remnants of hippodrome have been revealed in Gonio. In the 6th century BC the Greeks established their new settlements (colonies) on the territory of the Kingdom of Colchis, the Black Sea Coast. By means of the new settlements the Colchis had active trade and cultural relations with Greece. The towns established by local population of this period were also discovered. Nokalakevi city built in the 4th century BC is to be mentioned, it occupied 15 hectares, here were two royal palaces, tower gates and baths with central heating system. The fact that silver money – Colchis Tetri was minted in Colchis speaks about high level of development of the Colchis. The Kingdom of Kartli with the capital Mtskheta was established on the eastern Georgian territory in the 6th century BC. During the reign of King Parnavaz in the 3rd century BC was created the Georgian written language (alphabet). The Georgian written language is one of the 14 written languages in the world and is original: each sound of the Georgian alphabet is expressed by each letter. The Hebrews resettled from Palestine lived together with the Georgians in Mtskheta six hundred years ago. In the 33rd year of the 1st century the Hebrews of Mtskheta were notified from Palestine about the following: “Jesus of Nazareth is captured, he proclaims himself to be God’s Anointed Messias, thus send us scholars of the religion to judge what measures should be taken in regard to this matter”. Elioz of Mtskheta and Longinoz of Karsani were chosen to journey to Palestine. As Elioz’s mother prepared him for the journey, she tearfully begged him not to take any part in the spilling of the blood of the Messiah. When Elioz and Longinoz arrived in Jerusalem, the death penalty had been already issued and they attended the crucifixion. After the soldiers had cast lots for the Robe of Jesus Christ, it was acquired by Elioz and Longinoz, and with great honor they carried it back with them to Mtskheta. Upon their arrival, Elioz met his sister Sidonia, who upon touching the robe immediately died from the emotions engendered by the sacred object. The robe could not be removed from her grasp, so she was buried with it. The place where Sidonia is buried with Christ's robe is preserved in the Svetitskhoveli Cathedral. Christianity in Georgia was first preached by the Apostles Andrew Pirveltsodebuli, Simon Kananeli and Matata in the first century. The Kingdom of Kartli grew stronger in the 1st half of the 2nd century during the reign of King Parsman. Kartli was deemed to be the ally of the Roman Empire and a monument was set up to King Parsman as a mark of respect. The greatest and the most significant fact in the history of the Georgian nation had place in the 4th century, when Christianity was proclaimed as the state religion. Christianity in Georgia is related to the name of St. Nino. Saint Nino was from Cappadocia. Her father was a famous soldier of the Roman Emperor, her mother was sister of the Patriarch of Jerusalem and St. George was her cousin. St. Nino decided to preach Christianity in Georgia and settled in Mtskheta. King Mirian and Queen Nana adopted Christianity by St. Nino’s preaches, and afterwards Christianity was proclaimed as the state religion. It happed in 326 year. King Vakhtang founded Tbilisi in the 5th century. He built numerous churches, town and fortresses.

Proclamation of Christianity as the state religion changed much in the life of the Georgian nation. This relates to culture as well. The old heathen culture was already unacceptable. The Georgian Christian culture dates from the 4th century. In Georgia big attention was always paid to studying-education. Education was received in the churches - monasteries. Different works in original were written here. Translations were done. Rewriting and renewal of old manuscripts were performed in the churches – monasteries. The ancient work reaching us is “The Torture of Shushanik” written in the 5th century. It author is Jakob Khutsesi. In the 4th century, a rhetorical school functioned near Phazis, which was attended by the students from the Roman Empire. Petre Iberi – a famous clergyman and philosopher lived in the 5th century. Petre Iberi founded several Georgian monasteries in Palestine. In the 30s years of the 6th century the Thirteen Assyrian Fathers arrived in Georgia. They were a group of monastic missionaries who arrived from Syria. They founded monasteries in different parts of Georgia. These monasteries became not only the stronghold of Christianity, but also the strong cultural seats. Among the monasteries founded by the Fathers should be noted David Gareja rock-hewn Monatsery Complex, Shio-Mghvime Monastery Complex, Zedazeni Monastery Complex. The Georgian architects had a great tradition. Christianity brought new challenges to the architects. First of all, this related to the building of churches. At the beginning, simple small churches were built, since the 5th century has begun the construction of basilica and from the 6th century - the cupola-shaped cathedrals. Anchiskhati in Tbilisi, Bolnisi Sioni, Urbnisi, Ateni Sioni, Martvili and Dzveli Shuamta and others should also be mentioned. Among the fortresses should be mentioned Narikala fortress, Ujarma fortress, Tsikhegoji. The excellent examples of the Georgian mosaic are in Tsromi, Bitchvinta and Palestine. The important monastic educational centres in the 9th-11th centuries were Khandzta, Oshki, Ishkhani, Shtberdi, etc. The Georgian monasteries existed in Palestine, Asia Minor, Syria and different parts of the Byzantine Empire. At the end of the 10th century Ioane Mtatsmindeli founded Atoni Iberian monastery on Calcedoni semi-island in Byzantine. In 1083, the Georgian soldier Grigol patronymic Bakuriani living in Byzantine founded a monastery for the Georgians in Petritsoni on the Bulgarian territory. Under the direction of Ekvtime Mtatsmindeli the construction of the Georgian Monastery of the Holy Cross at Jerusalem began in the 20s years of the 11th century. The Georgian monasteries existed in Palestine on the Black mountain and Mount Sinai. In the 9th -11th centuries was built the only double- cupola church of the Holy Mother of God in Gurjaani. Tsirkoli and Armazi churches were also built, the cupola of which is possible to see from inside, it invisible from the outside. Three the biggest cathedrals were built in Georgia in this period: Svetitskhoveli in Mtskheta, Bagrati Cathedral in Kutaisi and Alaverdi in Kakheti. The excellent monuments of the Georgian architecture of this period are: Opisa, Kumurdo, Bedia, Kvetera, Samtavisi, Nikortsminda, Manglisi, etc., Atskuri fortress, Khurtvisi fortress and others. An excellent example of the Georgian gold jewelry-making is Bedia chalice. Georgia obtained special strength in the 12th century and at the beginning of the 13th century during the reign of King David the Builder, Demetre I, Giorgi III and Queen Tamar. In this period Georgia was deemed to be the strongest state in the Middle East. Its territory was spread from the Black Sea to the Caspian Sea. Approximately 5 million people lived in Georgia. Cultivation of crops, viticulture, gardening, vegetable growing, cattle-raising, silkworm breeding and apiculture underwent significant growth. Georgia had trade relations with Byzantine, Arabia, Russia, Egypt and other countries. The roads, bridges and caravanserai were built. Several significant cultural-educational monuments were created in the 12th century in Georgia. Gelati and Ikalto academies should also be noted. In Gelati and Ikalto academies were taught theology, philosophy, arithmetic, history, medicine, music, rhetoric, etc. Simultaneously, “The Knight in the Panther's Skin" was written, the Georgian national epic poem by Shota Rustaveli. In the 12th century and at the beginning of the 13th century were built excellent monuments of the Georgian architecture: Gelati, Ikorta, Betania, Durji Monastery, Kintsvisi, etc. The cave city of Vardzia was founded. Skhaltba – Shio Mghvime aqueduct should be mentioned. Great attention was paid to laying the irrigation channels. Alazani 120 km irrigation channel should also be noted, it irrigated 53 thousand hectares. A splendid example of the Georgian gold jewelry-making is Khakhuli icon. The Georgian progress was impeded by the Mongolian invasion in the 13th century, but the Georgian development did not cease. In the 13th-14th-15th centuries were built Tbilisi Metekhi Church, Gergeti Trinity Church, Safari, Zarzma, Tchule, Bieti and Tsaishi great cathedrals. Fresco reached a high level of development. The fresco of Ubisa, Bertubani, Tsalenjikha, Khobi, Safari, Zarzma and Tchule should be mentioned. Among the examples of gold jewelry-making should be noted the studding of Anchiskhati triptych. Excellent works of the Georgian poetry and prose were created in the 16th-17th-18th centuries. Excellent poets and writers, translators, lexicographers lived in that period. In 1629 was printed the Georgian-Italian vocabulary in Rome. In 1705 were published the Georgian psalms in Moscow. A great representative of the geographic science was Vakhushti Batonishvili. Approximately 60 sectors of handicraft were developed in Tbilisi. A great part of the manufactured products was exported abroad. Such products included fighting weapons and household equipment, horse equipment, copper vessels, linen, etc. Georgian, Caucasian and European clothes were sewn in Tbilisi. Mining was developed. Copper and gold-silver fields were processed. Manufactories of weapons and guns, bullets- powder, bricks, clay vessels, oil and other were established in the 2nd half of the 18th century. In the 16th-17th-18th centuries were built Gremi city ensemble with churches and palaces, Telavi fencing and royal residence with a palace, Sighnaghi with its fencing, Ananuri complex, Shuamta new monastery, Queen Darejan’s residence with a palace etc. The Russian-Georgian Treaty of Georgievsk was concluded on July 24, 1783 on the Russian territory in the town of Georgievsk. The treaty established Georgia as a protectorate of Russia. In 1801 eastern Georgia and in 1810 western Georgia were included in the Russian Empire. Different sectors of industry were developing in the 19th century and at the beginning of the 20th century. The products of small industry could not more meet a competition with factory-made goods. Mechanical manufacturing was developed in the 19th century. Tbilisi was a centre of industrial manufacturing. Tbilisi was a big railway junction. Baku-Tbilisi oil pipeline began working. Petroleum refinery began functioning in Batumi. Manufacturing of minerals underwent growth in the second half of the 19th century, i.e. copper, coal, manganese extraction. Agriculture was progressing. Wheat and barley were sown in big amounts in eastern Georgia and maize – in western Georgia. The most significant sector of agriculture was viticulture and wine-making. In the mountainous regions the leading sector was cattle-raising. Gardening, vegetable growing and silkworm breeding were developed. Tobacco cultivation was progressed in the 2nd half of the 19th century. Tea and citrus were planted in subtropical regions. Georgia had trade relations with European countries and Russia. A siginificat place in Tbilisi architecture was taken by the elements of different styles, epoch and country architecture since the 50s of the 19th century. Traditional residential houses were represented by multi-storey housing. Commercial - industrial and cultural-domestic buildings were developing. Theatre, cinema, fine arts and music were progressing in Georgia. In 1897 was staged the Georgian opera “Tamar the Wily” by Meliton Balanchivadze in St. Petersburg. A socialist revolution happened in Russian on November 7, 1917 and the communists headed the Russian government. Georgia declared independence on May 26, 1918. Georgia entered the Soviet Union on February 25, 1921. The factories of electrical power engineering, machinery construction, metalworking, metallurgy, chemistry, woodworking, furniture, porcelain, light industry and food industry were built and began functioning in Georgia in the 20th century. Tourism, agriculture and transport were developing. Manufacturing of airplanes, electric trains, automobiles, machine tooling units and industrial products began in Georgia. Industrial and agricultural products, manufactured in Georgia, were exported to many countries of the world. Georgia was holding the first place in the Soviet Union in making high quality wines, producing citrus plants, tea, tobacco and tung oil. Significant success was reached in the sphere of theoretical mechanics, physics, chemistry, medicine, geography and geology in the second half of the 20th century. Engineering got important development. Georgian music, theater and cinema underwent growth in the 20th century. There were created new operas and symphony compositions. Georgian ballet reached success. Variety music was developed. The ensembles of the Georgian-folk songs and dance gained popularity. Companies of the Georgian theaters systematically went on tour abroad. The audience of many countries of the world was astonished by the success of the Georgian dramatic art. The second half of the 20th century was a period of big progress of the Georgian cinema. The Georgian movies obtained many awards at film festivals in Cannes, Venice, San Remo, Berlin, Vienna, Edinburgh, Melbourne, Moscow, San-Francisco, Chicago, etc. The supreme council of Georgia adopted the act of restoration of the Georgian state independence on April 9, 1991. The Georgian democratic republic is an economically growing sovereign state.

The skull discovered in Dmanisi. 1.8 million years

The first Europeans

Stone tools. The Acheulean epoch 400-100 thousand years BC. Tsoni cave.

Flint tools. The Mustie epoch 100-35 thousand years BC. Jrutchuli cave.

Seashell beads. The Upper Paleolithic Age. 40000-10000 years BC Sagvarjili cave.

Bone pendant with cross image. The Upper Paleolithic Age. 22000-21000 years BC. Dzudzuana cave.

Mortar for grate and pressing of cereals. The Neolithic Age 8000-6000 BC. Odishi ancient settlement.

Gold figure of a lion. The 23rd-20th centuries BC. Tsnori

Gold necklace. The 19th century BC. Trialeti.

Gold cup. The 18th-17th centuries BC. Trialeti.

Fighting chariot. Bronze model. The 9th-8th centuries BC. Tsiteltskaro

Colchian silver coin. The 6th century BC.

Gold jewelry. The 5th century BC. Akhalgori.

Gold jewelry. The 5th century BC. Vani

Bronze Goddess of Victory Nike. Bronze mask. Gold eagle. Gold jewelry. The 2nd century BC. Vani.

Gold jewelry. The 2nd-3rd centuries. Armaziskhevi.

The Holy Mother Mary’s Robe was brought to Georgia from Byzantine in the 8th century. It is preserved in the Dadiani Palace.

Floor mosaic. The 3rd-4th centuries. Museum of Art. Tbilisi

Anchiskhati triptych. The icon was painted in the 6th-7th centuries and was studded in the 12th century.

Georgian enamel, the 8th-10th centuries.

Meeting. Georgian enamel. The 12th century.

The raising of Lazarus. Georgian enamel. The 12th century.

Khakhuli Cathedral. Eagle sculpture. The 10th century.

Gold chalice of Bedia. 999 year.

Khakhuli icon of the Holy Mother Mary is the biggest enamel in the world (116 cm – 95 cm), 115 examples of enamel are placed on the triptych. The 8th-12th centuries.

Fresco of Ubisa Cathedral. The Last Supper. Damian. The 14th century.

Fresco of Ubisa Cathedral. Mother of God with angels. Damian. The 14th century.

Georgian fighting weapons of the Middle Ages.

Tbilisi. The 19th century.

A fisherman. Painter Pirosmani. The 19th century.

Tbilisi. The 19th century.